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Career in India        

Education in India, Career in India: Sciences

Looking for a Career Options in the Field of Science ? This section features Sciences as a career options, elaborated with reference to the job profile, personality traits required, the courses and training involved, premier institutions and future prospects.

  • Chemistry:

    The growth of a nation is measured by its technological progress. The work of scientists is of particular relevance in this context. With the manufacture and use of almost 50,000 different chemical substances, chemical scientists have a challenging future. Chemistry offers a wide field for study and work. Here we explore options with the study of chemistry.

  • Physics:

    Physics is a fundamental science and for this reason most other scientists need to study the subject. Chemists, engineers, biologists, as well as doctors need a basic understanding of physics. Physicists work by determining the basic laws which govern phenomena such as gravity, electromagnetism and nuclear interactions leading to discoveries and innovations that advance nuclear energy, electronics, communications, aerospace technology and medical instrumentation. Physicists find themselves working in astrophysics, geophysics, medical physics, nuclear physics, meteorology, astronomy and biophysics, by acquiring specialised knowledge of these fields.

  • Mathematics:

    Mathematics is the study of form, structure, operations and relationships. Mathematics is also applied to all scientific study, engineering, physics, astronomy and even to the field of commerce, logistics, production, planning and development. It serves as a basic tool of thought not only in the physical sciences, the biological and medical sciences, but is also deep rooted in the social sciences as well. Mathematics is rapidly becoming the language of all the sciences, physical, biological and social. Subjects like economics, business administration and psychology are increasingly using statistical methods, linear programming and other mathematical technology.

  • Biochemistry and Microbiology:

    Biochemistry and Microbiology is a highly complicated and advanced branch of science which involves a wide range of techniques used in changing the genetic material in the DNA code in a living organism. Genetic Engineering means the deliberate modification of the characters of an organism by the manipulation of its genetic material. Genetic engineering comes under the broad heading of Biotechnology. There is a great scope in this field as the demand for genetic engineers are growing in India as well as abroad.

Personality Traits

Chemistry, as a subject for higher study, requires a strong scientific base. Scientific work and study requires an above average mental ability, good grasp of scientific concepts, and a consistent and above average academic record. The scientists must have an analytical mind, interest in pursuing studies far beyond graduation, perseverance, hard work, a curious bent of mind and commitment towards work.

A career in any of the mathematical sciences, including mathematics, statistics, computer science, physical sciences, engineering and other mathematically oriented fields such as actuarial work (in insurance) or accounting requires an aptitude for mathematics. One should enjoy working with figures and solving problems. A mathematics student should become thoroughly familiar with the fundamentals of arithmetic, algebra, geometry and trigonometry. Good computer proficiency is required.

Interest in scientific phenomena, patience, perseverance, precision and tremendous inclination to search for real solutions is the strength of all physicists. The motivation for scientific work should be intense, as often, sustained efforts to pursue research is required. The ability to work with details is important.


Inter University Centre for Astronomy and Astrophysics also selects candidates for a Ph.D. in Astronomy and Astrophysics through a written test conducted in Pune. The selected students undergo graduate courses in Physics, astronomy and related areas for 2 semesters after which they can register for a Ph.D. Postgraduates in Physics/AppliedMaths/Astronomy/Electronicsor Graduates/Postgraduates in engineering with adequate background in physics and mathematics are eligible.

A list of Institutes offering courses in biological sciences such as biotechnology (agricultural, marine, animal, doctorate etc), biochemistry, microbiology etc are given in the following links

  1. Physics Graduation and Post Graduation
  2. Mathematics Graduation and Post Graduation
  3. Chemistry Graduation and Post Graduation
  4. B.Sc Biochemistry and M.Sc Biochemistry
  5. B.Sc Microbiology and M.Sc. Microbiology
  6. BA Microbiology


Please click here for the list of the Science Institutes in India.

Placements And Prospects

Chemistry Prospects:

  1. Opportunities for graduate/postgraduates in chemistry exist in industries manufacturing textiles, petroleum products, rubber, plastics, agricultural products, papers, pharmaceutical, food, fertilizers, paints and even in cosmetic and other aromatic product manufacturing industries.

  2. The electronic, paper and pulp, metal, cement and aerospace industries also offer employment opportunities.

  3. Chemical scientists also find opportunity for work in water treatment, sanitary and sewage treatment plants.

  4. Food chemistry and technology incorporates the work chemists do in food flavouring, pet foods and food preservatives. These are the developing areas for research and production.

  5. Postgraduates/graduates from the field of chemistry work in sales, marketing and management, patent and product liability law, chemicals business market research and public policy. Those with a Ph D are encountered in research labs.

  6. Army recruits women candidates for the Army Service Corps as Food scientists. Candidates are required to have a post graduate degree in organic chemistry/biochemistry of foods. Graduates in chemistry are enrolled for the Army Ordinance Corps.

  7. Chemists and chemical engineers are employed in consultancy firms to provide specialist guidance in areas related to their research speciality.
Jobs in Chemistry:
  1. Analytical Chemist
  2. Organic Chemist
  3. . Inorganic Chemist
  4. Physical Chemist
  5. Industrial Chemist
  6. Chemical Engineer
  7. Chemical Engineering Technician
  8. Non Production Jobs
Physicists working in research and development are involved with specialised branches such as elementary particle physics, nuclear physics, atomic, electron and molecular physics, physics of condensed matter, optics, acoustics, plasma physics and the physics of fluids. Growing numbers of physicists are specialising in fields such as biophysics, chemical physics, health physics and related sciences.

Work for a physicist is basically research based and is generally performed by a group of scientists working together or in tandem. They often work in related areas of astrophysics, astronomy, geophysics, nuclear physics, meteorology and so on. To facilitate both intensive and extensive study of physics, it has been divided into several branches. Some important branches are as following-

physics Prospects:

  1. Mechanics
  2. Heat
  3. Sound
  4. Light
  5. Magnetism
  6. Electricity
  7. Modern Physics
  8. Nuclear Physics
  9. Atomic Physics
  10. Astronomy
  11. Space Science etc.
Math Prospects: Mathematicians work in operations research, numerical analysis, computer systems design and software programming, information and data processing. They work in the field of aviation in aerodynamics, applied physics, robotics, market research, population studies and commercial surveys and in industrial research and development. A combined degree in mathematics and computer science is most suited for jobs in data processing and interpretation and other applied fields. Mathematics offers scope to teachers in schools and colleges

There is an increasing demand for Biochemistry and Microbiology in India as well as abroad. Biochemistry and Microbiology are mainly absorbed in medical and pharmaceutical industries, the agricultural sector, and the research and development departments of the government and private sectors. They can also take up teaching as an option.

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