|UPSC - Syllabus - Zoology|
Main Examination Syllabus - Subject : Zoology
Non-chordata and chordata
- Classfication and relationship of varous phyla upto sub-classes; Acoelomata and Coelomata; Protostomes and Deuterostomes, Bilateralia and Radiata; Status of Protista, Parazoa, Onychophora and Hemichordata; Symmetry.
- Protozoa : Locomotion, nutrition, reproduction; evolution of sex; General features and life history of Paramaecium, Monocystis, Plasmodium, and Leishmania.
- Porifera : Skeleton, canal system and reproduction.
- Coelenterata : Polymorphism, defensive structures and their mechanism; coral reefs and their formation; metagenesis; general features and life history of Obelia and Aurelia.
- Platyhelminthes : Parasitic adaptation; general features and life history of Fasciola and Taenia and their relation to man.
- Nemathelminthes : General features, life history and parasitic adaptation of Ascaris; nemathelminths in relation to man.
- Annelida : Coelom and metamerism; modes of life in polychaetes; general features and life history of nereis (Neanthes), earthworm (Pheretima) and leach (Hirudinaria).
- Arthropoda : Larval forms and parasitism in Crustacea; vision and respiration in arthropods (prawn, cockroach and scorpion); modification of mouth parts in insects (cockroach, mosquito, housefly, honey bee and butterfly); metamorphosis in insects and its hormonal regulation; social organization in insects (termites and honey bees).
- Mollusca : Feeding, respiration, locomotion, shell diversiy; general features and life history of Lamellidens, Pila and Sepia, torsion and detorsion in gastropods.
- Echinodermata : Feeding, respiration, locomotion larval forms; general features and life history of Asterias.
- Protochordata : Origin of chordates; general features and life history of Branchiostoma and Herdamania.
- Pisces : Scales, respiration, locomotion, migration.
- Amphibia : Origin of tetrapods; parental care, paedomorphosis.
- Reptilia : Origin of reptiles; skull types; status of Sphenodon and crocidiles.
- Aves : Origin of birds; flight adaptation, migration.
- Mammalia : Origin of mammals; denitition; general features of egg-laying mammals, pouched-mammals, aquatic mammals and primates; endocrine glands and other hormone producing structures (pituitary, thyroid, parathyroid, adrenal, pancreas, gonads) and their interrelationships.
- Comparative functional anatomy of various systems of vertebrates (integument and its derivatives, endoskeleton, locomotory organs, digestive system, respiratory system, circulatory system including heart and aortic arches; urino-genital system, brain and sense organs (eye and ear).
- Biosphere:Biogeochemical cycles, green-houses effect, ozone layer and its impact; ecological succession, biomes and ecotones.
- Population, characteristics, population dynamics, population stabilization.
- Conservation of natural resources- mineral mining, fisheries, aquaculture; forestry; grassland; wildlife (Project Tiger); susainable production in agriculture-integrated pest management.
- Environmental biodegradation; pollution and its impact on biosphere and its prevention.
- Behaviour : Sensory filtering, responsiveness, sign stimuli, learning, instinct, habituation, conditioning, imprinting.
- Role of hormones in drive; role of pheromones in alarm spreading; crypsis, predator detection, predator tactics, social behaviour in insects and primates; courtship (Drosophila, 3-spine stickleback and birds).
- Orientation, navigation, homing; biological rhythms; biological clock, tidal, seasonal and circadian rhythms.
- Methods of studying animal behaviour.
- Economic Zoology
- Apiculture, sericulture, lac culture, carp culture, pearl culture, prawn culture.
- Major infectious and communicable diseases (small pox, plague, malaria, tuberculosis, cholera and AIDS) their vectors, pathogens and prevention.
- Cattle and livestock diseases, their pathogens (helminths) and vectors (ticks, mites,Tabanus, Stomoxys)
- Pests of sugar cane (Pyrilla perpusiella), oil seed (Achaea janata) and rice (Sitophilus oryzae).
- Designing of experiments; null hypothesis; correlation, regression, distribution and measure of central tendency, chi square, student t-test, F-test (one-way & two-way F-test).
- Instrumental methods
- Spectrophotometry, flame photometry, Geiger-Muller counter, scintiliation counting.
- Electron microscopy (TEM, SEM).
- Cell Biology
- Structure and function of cell andits organelles(nucleus, plasma membrane, mitochondria, Golgi bodies, endoplasmic reticulum, ribosomes and Iysosomes), cell division (mitosis and meiosis), mitotic spindle and mitotic apparatus, chromosome movement.
- Watson-Crick model of DNA, replication of DNA, protein synthesis, transcription and transcription factors.
- Gene structure and functions; genetic code.
- Sex chromosomes and sex determination in Drosophilla, nematodes and man.
- Mendel's laws of inheritance, recombination, linkage, linkage-maps, multiple alleles, cistron concept; genetics of blood groups.
- Mutations and mutagenesis : radiation and chemical.
- Cloning technology, plasmids and cosmids as vectors, transgenics, transposons, DNA sequence cloning and whole animal cloning (Principles and methodology).
- Regulation and gene expression in pro-and eu-karyotes.
- Signal transduction; pedigree-analysis; congenital diseases in man.
- Human genome mapping; DNA finger-printing.
- Origin of life
- Natural selection, role of mutation in evolution, mimicry, variation, isolation, speciation.
- Fossils and fossilization; evolution of horse, elephant and man.
- Hardy-Weinberg Law, causes of change in gene frequency.
- Continental drift and distribution of animals.
- Zoological nomenclature; international code; cladistics.
- Structure and role of carbohydrates, fats, lipids, proteins, aminoacids, nucleic acids; saturated and unsaturated fattyacids, cholesterol.
- Glycolysis and Krebs cycle, oxidation and reduction, oxidative phosphorylation; energy conservation and release, ATP, cyclic AMP-its structure and role.
- Hormone classification (steroid and peptide hormones), biosynthesis and function.
- Enzymes : types and mechanisms of action; immunoglobulin and immunity; vitamins and co-enzymes.
- Physiology (with special refernece ot mammals)
- Composition and constitutents of blood; blood groups and Rh factor in man; coagulation, factors and mechanism of coagulation; acid-base balance, thermo regulation.
- Oxygen and carbon dioxide transport; haemoglobin : constitutents and role in regulation.
- Nutritive requirements; role of salivary glands, liver, pancreas and intestinal glands in digestion and absorption.
- Excretory products; nephron and regulation of urine formation; osmoregulation.
- Types of muscles, mechanism of contraction of skeletal muscles.
- Neuron, nerve impulse-its conduction and synaptic transmission; neurotransmitters.
- Vision, hearing and olfaction in man.
- Mechanism of hormone action.
- Physiology of reproduction, role of hormones and phermones.
- Developmental Biology
- Differentiation from gamete to neurula stage; dedifferentiation; metaplasia, induction, morphogenesis and morphogen; fate maps of gastrulae in frog and chick; organogenesis of eye and heart, placenation in mammals.
- Role of cytoplasm in and genetic control of development; cell lineage; causation of metamorphosis in frog and insects; paedogenesia and neoteny; growth, degrowth and cell death; ageing; blastogenesis; regeneration; teratogenesis; neoplasia.
- Invasiveness of placenta; in vitro fertilization; embryo transfer, cloning.
- Baer's law; evo-devo concept.