Atoms, Molecules and Chemical Arithmetic
Measurement in chemistry (significant figures, Sl unit, Dimensional analysis). Chemical classification of matter (mixtures, compounds and elements and purification). Law of chemical combination and Dalton’s Atomic theory. Atomic Mass (mole concept, determination of chemical formulae). Chemical equation (balancing of chemical equation and calculations using chemical equations).
Elements, their Occurrence and extraction
Earth as a source of elements, elements in biology, Elements in sea, extraction of metals (metallurgical process, production of concentrated ore, production of metals and their purification). Mineral wealth of India. Qualitatives test of metals.
State of Matter
Gaseous state ( measurable properties of gases, Boyle’s Law, Charles’s Law and absolute scale of temperature, Avogdro’s hypothesis, ideal gas equation, Dalton’s law of partial pressure.
The solid state (classification of solids, X-ray studies of crystal lattices and unit cells, packing of constituent particles in crystals). Liquid state (Properties of liquids, Vapour pressure, Surface Tension, Viscosity).
Constituents of the atom (Discovery of electron, nuclear model of the atom). Electronic structure of atoms (nature of light and electromagnetic waves, atomic spectra, Bohr’s model of Hydrogen atom, Quantum mechanical model of the atom, electronic configurations of atoms, Aufbau principle).
Chemical Families – Periodic Properties
Mendeleev’s Periodic Table, Modern Periodic Law, Types of elements (Representative elements-s & p block elements, inner transition elements-d-block elements, inner transition elements-f-block elements). Periodic trends in properties. (Ionization energy, electron, affinity, atomic radii, valence, periodicity in properties of compounds).
Bonding and Molecular Structure
Chemical bonds and Lewis structure shapes of molecules (VSEPR Theory). Quantum theory of the covalent bond ( Hydrogen and some other simple molecules, carbon compounds, hybridization, Boron and Beryllium compounds). Coordinate covalent bond ( Ionic bond as an extreme case of polar covalent bond, ionic character of molecules and polar molecules. Bonding in solid state (Ionic, molecules and covalent solids, metals). Hydrogen bond, Resonance.
Carbon and Compounds
Elemental carbon, Carbon compounds, Inorganic compounds of carbon ( Oxides of carbon, halides, carbides). Organic compounds, Nomenclature of organic compounds (Hydrocarbons, functional groups). Some common organic compounds (Alkanes, Alkenes, Alkynes, Alcohols, Aldehydes, Ketones, Halides, Acids, nitro compounds and Amines).
Energy changes during a chemical reaction, Internal energy and Enthalpy (Internal energy, Enthalpy, Enthalpy changes, Origin of Enthalpy changes in a reaction. Hess’s Law of constant heat summation, numericals based on these concepts). Heats of reactions (heat of neutralization, heat of combustion, heat of fusion and vapourization). Source of energy (Conservation of energy sources and identification of alternative sources, pollution associated with consumption of fuels. The sum as the primary source). What decides the direction of a spomntaneous change in chemical reaction ? (an elementary idea of free energy change). Why energy crisis is energy is conserved in nature ?
Equilibria involving physical changes (solid-liquid, liquid-gas equilibrium involving dissolution of solid in liquids, gases in liquids, general characteristics of equilibrium involving physical processes). Equilibria involving chemical systems (the law of chemical equilibrium, the magnitude of the equilibrium constant, numerical problems). Effect of changing conditions of systems at equilibrium (change of concentration, change of temperature, effect of catalyst-Le Chateliar’s principle). Equilibria involving ions (ionization of electrolytes, weak and strong electrolytes, acid-base equilibrium, various concepts of acids and bases, ionization of water, pH, solubility product, numericals based on these concepts).
Oxidation and reduction as an electron transfer process. Redox reactions in aqueous solutions-electrochemical cells. EMF of a galvanic cell. Dependence of EMF on concentration and temperature (nearest equation and numerical problems based on it). Electrolysis, Oxidation numbers (reles for assigning oxidation number, redox reaction sin terms of oxidation number and nomenclature). Balancing of oxidation-reduction equations.
Rates of Chemical Reactions
Rates of reaction. Instantaneous rate of reaction and order of reaction. Factors affecting rates of reactions (factors affecting rate of collisions encountered between the reactant molecules, effect of temperature on the reaction rate, concept of activation energy, catalysis). Effect of light on rates of reactions. Elementary reactions as steps to more complex reactions. How fast are chemical reactions ?
Chemistry of Non-metals
(Hydrogen, Oxygen and Nitrogen) Hydrogen (position in periodic table, occurrence, isotopes, properties, reactions and uses). Oxygen (occurrence, preparation, properties and reactions, uses, simple oxids; ozone). Water and hydrogen peroxide (structure of water molecule and its aggregates, physical and chemical properties of water, hard and soft water, softening, hydrogen peroxides, preparation, properties, structure and uses) Nitrogen (Preparation, properties, uses, compounds of Nitrogen – Ammonia, Oxides of Nitrogen, Nitric Acid – preparation, properties and uses).
Chemistry of Non-metals II
(Boron, silicon, phosphorus, sulphur, halogens and the noble gases).Boron (Occurrence, isolation, physical and chemical properties, borax and boric acid, uses of boron and its compounds).Silicon (occurrence , preparation and properties, oxides and oxyacids of phosphorus, chemical fertilizers).Sulphur (occurrence and extraction, properties and reactions, oxides: Sulphuric acid – preparation properties and uses, sodium thiosulphate). Halogens (occurrence, preparation, properties, hydrogen halides, uses of halogens). Nobel gases (discovery, occurrence and isolation, physical properties, chemistry of noble gases and their uses).
Chemistry of Lighter Metals
Sodium and Potassium (occurrence and extraction, properties and uses, important compound – Nacl, ). Magnesium and calcium (occurrence and extraction, properties and uses, important compound - plaster of paris). Aluminium (occurrence, extraction, properties and uses, compound - alums). Cement. Biological role of Sodium, Potassium, Magnesium and Calcium.
Chemistry of Heavier Metals
Iron (occurrence and extraction, compounds of iron, oxides, halides, sulphides, sulphate, alloy and steel. Copper, silver, and gold (occurrence and extractions properties and uses, compound-sulphides, halides and sulphates, photography). Zinc and Mercury (occurrence and extraction, properties and uses, compound-oxides, halides; sulphides and sulphates). Tin and Lead (occurrence and extraction, properties, uses, compounds – oxides, sulphades, halides).
Structure and Shape (s) of Hydrocarbons
Alkanes (structure, isomerism, conformation).Stereo Isomerism and chirality (origin of chirality, optical relation, racenic mixture).Alkenes (isomerism including cis-trans).Alkynes.Arenes (structure of benzene, resonance structure, isomerism in arenas).
Preparation and Properties of Hydrocarbons
Sources of hydrocarbons (origin and composition of coal and petroleum; Hydrocarbons from coal and petroleum cracking and reforming, quality of gasoline-octane number, gasoline additives).
Laboratory preparation of alkanes (preparation from unsaturated hydrocarbons, alkyl halides and carboxylic acids).
Laboratory preparation of alkenes (preparation from alcohols, alkyl halides).
Laboratory preparation of aikynes (preparation from calcium carbide and accetylene).
Physical properties of alkanes (boiling and melting points, solubility and density)
Reactions of hydrocarbons (oxidation, addition, substitution and miscellaneous reactions).
Purification and Characterisation of Organic Compounds
Purification (crystallization, sublimation, distillation, differential extraction, chromatography) Qualitative analysis (analysis of nitrogen sulphur, phosphorus and halogens). Qualitative analysis (estimation of carbon, hydrogen, nitrogen, halogens, sulphur, phosphorus and oxygen). Determination of molecular mass (Victor Mayer’s method, volumetric method). Calculation of empirical formula and molecular formula. Numerical problems in organic quantitative analysis, modern methods of structure elucidation.
The Molecules of Life
The cell. Carbohydrates (monosaccharides, disaccharides and polysaccharides). Protein (amino acids, peptide bond, structured of proteins, tertiary structure of proteins and denaturation, enzymes). Nuclei acids (structure, the double helix, biological function of nucleic acid, viruses). Lipids.
Atomic Structure and Chemical Bonding
Atoms; dual nature of matter and radiation. The Uncertainty principle. Orbitals and Quantum numbers. Shapes of orbitals. Electronic configuration of atoms. Molecules: Molecular orbital method. Hybridisation, Dipole moment and structure of molecules.
The Solid State
Structure of simple ionic compounds. Close-packed structures. Ionic-radii, Silicates (elementary ideas). Imperfection in solids (point defects only). Properties of solids. Amorphous solids. The Gaseous state Ideal gas equation – Kinetic theory (fundamentals only).
Types of solutions, Vapour-pressure of solutions and Raoult’s law. Colligative properties. Non-ideal solutions and abnormal molecular masses. Mole concept – stoichemistry, volumetric analysis-concentration unit.
First law of thermodynamics: Internal energy, Enthalphy, application of first law of thermodynamics. Second law of thermodynamics: Entropy, Free Energy, Spontaneity of a chemical reaction, free energy change and chemical equilibrium, free energy as energy available for useful work. Third law of thermosynamics.
Electrolytic conduction. Voltaic cell, Electrode potential and Electromotive force. Gibb’s free energy and cell potential. Electrode potential and Electrolysis. Primary cells including fuel cell. Corrosion.
Rate expression. Order of a reaction (with suitable examples). Units of rates and specific rate constant. Order of reaction and concentration. (study will be confined to first order only). Temperature dependance of rate constant-Fast reactions (only elementary ideal). Mechanism of reaction (only elementary idea). Photochemical reactions.
Organic Chemistry Based on Functional Group – I
(Halides and Hydroxy compounds).Nomenclature of compounds containing halogen atoms and hydroxyl groups : haloalkanes, haloarenes; alcohols and phenols. Correlation of physical properties and uses. Preparation, properties and uses of following; Polyhalogen compounds : Chloroform, Idoform. Polhydric compounds. Ethane 1,--diol; Propene – 1,2,3 triol.
Structure and reactivity-(a) Induction effect, (b) Mesomeric effect, (c) Electrophiles and Nucleophiles, (d) Types of organic reaction.
Organic Chemistry Based on Functional Group-II
(Ethers, aldehydes, ketones , carboxylic acids and their derivatives).
Nomenclature of ethers, aldehydes, ketones, carboxylic acids and their derivatives. (acyl halides, acid anhydrides, amides and esters). General methods of preparation, correlation of physical properties with their structures, chemical properties and uses. (Note : Specific compounds should not be stressed for the purpose of evaluation)
Organic Chemistry Based on Functional Group – III
(Cyanides, isocyanides, nitro compounds and amines)
(Nomenclature of cyanides and isocyanides; nitro compounds and amines and their methods of preparation; correlation of physical properties with structure, chemical reactions and uses.
Chemistry of Representative Elements
Periodic properties – Trends in groups (a) Oxides-nature (b) Halides-melting points (c) Carbonates and Sulphates – solubility. The chemistry of s and p block elements, electronic configuration, general characteristic properties and oxidation states of the following :
Group 1 elements – Alkali metals
Group 2 elements-Alkaline earth metals
Group 13 elements-Boron family
Group 14 elements-Carbon family
Group 15 elements-Nitrogen family
Group 16 elements-Oxygen family
Group 17 elements-Halogen family
Group 18 elements- Nobel gases and Hydrogen.
Transition Metals including Lanthanides
Electronic configuration : General characteristic properties, oxidation states of transition metals. First row transition metals and general properties of their compounds-oxides, halides and sulphides. General properties of second and third row transition elements (Group wise discussion). Inner transition elements: General discussion and special reference to oxidation state and Lanthanide contraction.
Coordination Chemistry and Organo Metallics.
Coordination compounds. Nomenclature : Isomerism in coordination compounds; Bonding in coordination compounds; Stability of coordination compounds; application of coordination compounds; Compounds containing metal-carbon bond; Application of organometallics.
Nature of radiation from radioactive substances. Nuclear structure and nuclear properties. Nuclear reactions; Radioactive disintegration series; Artificial transmutation of elements; Nuclear fission and Nuclear fusion : Isotopes and their uses; Radio carbon-dating; Synthetic elements.
Synthetic and Natural Polymers
Classification of Polymers, natural and synthetic polymers (with stress on their general methods of preparation) and important uses of the following : Teflon, PVC, Polystyrene, Nylon-66, terylene. Environmental pollution – pollutant – services – check and alternatives.
Surfaces : Adsorption, Colloids – (Preparation and general properties). Emulsions, Micelles. Catalysis : Homogeneous and heterogeneous, structure of catalyst.
Carbohydrates : Monosaccharides, Disaccharides, Polysaccharides. Amino Acid and Peptides – Structure and classification. Proteins and Enzymes – Structure of proteins, Role of enzymes. Nucleic Acids – DNA and RNA. Biological functions of Nucleic acids – Protein synthesis and replication. Lipids – Structure, membranes and their functions.
Chemistry of Biological Process
Carbohydrates and their Metabolism, Hemoglobin blood and respiration; Immune system; Vitamins and hormones. Simple idea of chemical evolution.
Chemistry in Action
Dyes, Chemicals in medicines, Rocket propellants. (Structural formulae non – evaluative)