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Education in India, Career in India: Medical, Medicine

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Looking for a Career Option in the Field of Medicine ? This section features Medicine as a career option, elaborated with reference to the job profile, personality traits required, the courses and training involved, premier institutions and future prospects.

Medicine is one of the most sort out and rewarding career for those interested in Science and dealing with sick people. Over the years, the field of medical studies have undergone various stages of development, it has become so vast that specialisations within are increasing day by day. There is great scope for medicine as a professional career.

A doctor's profession involves a lot of hard work and at the same time, it gives the satisfaction of curing patients at times even saving lives. It is a very demanding profession. To be in this profession is more a responsibility than a privilege. It is more of what you can give the community than what you can get from it.

The increasing complicated lifestyles giving birth to a variety of ailments have made it impossible for General Physicians with an MBBS degree to handle all ailments. It is here that specialisation in a particular branch of medicine becomes a necessity. The major Specialisations include General Medicine, General Surgery, Paediatrics, Obstetrics & Gynaecology, Dermatology, Ophthalmology, Orthopedics, ENT (Ear, Nose and Throat), Psychiatry, Anesthesiology etc. There is also Super Specialisations which require a further 3-5 years of study in areas such as Plastic Surgery, Neurosurgery, Cardio-thoracic surgery, Conito-urinary surgery, Paediatric Surgery, Gastroenterology, Endocrinology and Clinical Haematology.

The demand for medical professionals are tremendously increasing with the unfortunate upsurge of diseases and ailments day by day. At the same time super specialty hospitals are mushrooming both within the country and abroad offering employment opportunities. These along with liberalization of economy could bring better opportunities for these professionals in terms of remuneration, research and working facilities.

Other than Allopathy, medicine also covers different systems like Homeopathy, Ayurveda, Siddha, Unani etc.

Personality Traits

  • Should have good memory and recollection ability, good physical health, good judgement.
  • Service mentality, stamina, patience.
  • Power of concentration, emotional stability, self confidence.
  • Logical and analytical mind, decision making ability.
  • Willingness to learn throughout their career.
  • Ability to take timely decisions, Self -motivation.
  • An amiable and sympathetic temperament.
  • Drive to work hard.
  • Above average intelligence.
  • A doctor is also expected to possess a strong sense of responsibility as the patient's life depends entirely on him.

In addition those who take up surgery must possess high concentration, manual and finger dexterity and stamina, and the ability to stand on their feet continuously for several hours while dealing with life and death.



  1. Physician

    They diagnose and treat ailments and disorders of the human body. On the basis of symptoms and tests conducted, the physician prescribes medicines to patients.

  2. Surgeon

    The surgeon diagnoses and treats injuries, diseases and disorders of the human body by prescribing medicines or, where necessary, by means of surgical operations. Surgery can be orthopedic, plastic, neuro, thoracic, etc.

  3. Community health

    Public or community health medicine is concerned with the promotion of health of a whole community rather than of specific individuals. It is primarily about preventive medicine and there is no direct clinical contact with patients.

    Most health doctors are employed in regional or district health authorities. Their work includes the overall administration, planning and development of personal health and community care.

  4. Research and training

    Researching new forms of treatments and new drugs and their effects is done in hospitals, research establishments and drug firms. Doctors mostly combine clinical and scientific work, but there are also research appointments, often including some teaching, for those who are interested in scientific development of medicine rather than patient contact.

    With medical knowledge having increased in leaps and bounds, it has become necessary for those who practise to specialize in a particular aspect of medicine, so as to keep pace with important developments.

    The major areas of specializations include the following

    • General physicians (doctors possessing M.B.B.S degree, with no particular specialization).
    • General surgery (requires a 3 year specialized course after M.B.B.S).
    • Paediatrics (deals with children, from new-borns to adolescents).
    • Cardiology (deals with ailments and dsieases of heart).
    • Obstetrics and gynaecology (deals with diagnosis and treatment of diseases and disorders in females in reproductive age group).

  5. Neurology

    Neurologists in diseases and disorders related to the human brain. They handle the treatment of problems related to nervous system and other problems in human body, arising from disorders in human brain.

  6. Dermatolgy

    Dermatology deals with the diagnosis and treatment of diseases of skin and realted problems.

  7. Opthalmology

    Opthalmologists are eye specialists who diagnose and condust treatment for the diseases of the human eye and its related parts. They can also check the eyesight and prescribed corrective lenses, but nowadays, most often, it is an optometrist (a paramedic with a diploma in optometry) who handles these aspects of eye care.

  8. ENT (Ear, Nose and Throat) specialists

    ENT specialists deals with diseases and disorders of ear, nose and throat. These 3 organs are physiologically interconnected and so one specialist can handle nasal as well as throat and ear ailments.

  9. Psychiarty

    This is an area of specialization that diagnoses and treats mental disorders by means of counselling or therapy and medication.

  10. Allopathy
    • Bachelor Of Medicine & Bachelor Of Surgery (M.B.B.S)
    • Doctor Of Medicine (MD), Master Of Surgery (MS)

  11. Ayurveda
    • Bachelor Of Ayurvedic Medicine & Surgery (B.A.M.S)

  12. Dentistry
    • Bachelor Of Dental Surgery (B.D.S)
    • Master Of Dental Surgery (M.D.S)

  13. Homeopathy
    • Bachelor Of Homeopathic Medicine & Surgery (B.H.M.S)
    • Postgraduate Diploma in Homeopathic Medicine & Surgery

  14. Siddha
    • Bachelor Of Siddha Medicine & Surgery (B.S.M.S)
    • MD in Siddha

  15. Unani
    • Kamil-e-Tob-o-Jarahat
    • Mahir-e-Tibb


There are highly competitive entrance exams for addmission to the medical colleges for MBBS/BDS including the following.

  • The All-India-Entrance examinations.
  • The state medical college Exams for domiciled candidates of each state.
  • Open payment seats are available in certain private medical colleges in Karnataka, Andhra Pradesh, Tamil Nadu and Maharashtra.

The notification for the entrance exams appears in November/December and the exams are held in May every year.


The basic or degree level qualification for a medical profession is MBBS (Bachelor of Medicine And Bachelor Of Surgery) which is of 5 1/2 years duration (including 1 year internship). Selection for MBBS is through an All India Entrance Examination. (Details in Entrance Details & Syllabus). The qualification required for entrance is 10+2 or equivalent with Science subjects. In the case of private medical colleges entrance examinations are conducted by the institutes individually. In addition to MBBS, candidate should complete House Surgency or internship for one year.

The course content includes anatomy, physiology, biochemistry, microbiology, pathology, pharmacology, forensic medicine, general medicine, surgery, ophthalmology, ENT (ear, nose and throat), gynaecology and obstetrics, paediatrics, orthopaedics and preventive and social medicine.

After MBBS, candidates can go for post graduate level studies (MD or MS) through another entrance. At the post graduate level, there is specialisation in Medicine and Surgery. Post Graduate Programmes (MD or MS) is usually of 3 years duration. The major Specialisations include General Medicine, General Surgery, Paediatrics, Obstetrics & Gynaecology, Dermatology, Ophthalmology, Orthopedics, ENT (Ear, Nose and Throat), Psychiatry, Anesthesiology etc.

Those with Post Graduation (MD or MS or M.Sc in Medicine) can further opt for super-specialisation. i.e. they can go for Ph.D in any specialised area of medicine. MD or MS holders can complete the Doctoral Programme (Ph.D) in 2 years and M.Sc Medicine holders in 3 years.

For practicing as a physician or surgeon, one needs to have completed the MBBS course from a recognised medical college and must possess a license from the State Medical Council to practice.


Please click here for the list of the Medicine Institutes in India.

Placements And Prospects


  1. In Government or private hospitals
  2. In Nursing homes/clinics/health departments
  3. In medical services of the army, navy and air force, under the Ministry of Defense
  4. In charitable institutions
  5. In medical colleges and training institutes as teachers
  6. In research institutes and medical colleges as researchers
  7. In the industrial sector
  8. Private practice/self employment


These specialist have extensive job opportunities in Hospitals, polyclinics, diagnostic laboratories, dental and opthalmic clinics in the government and private sector.They can also take up research and development work in institutional laboratories or with pharmaceutical companies.

Besides hospitals and clinics, physiotherapists can be employed in health clubs or fittness centers. Orthotic and prosthetic engineers can also work in private surgical firms which are involved in manufacturing artificial limbs and other such appliances.

There will always be a demand for doctors and paramedics in the rural and urban areas of the country, and abroad. Despite the advances in medical sciences and protective health care, urbanization has increased in diseases and subsequent requirement for medical specialists. There is also a Growth in medical specialization.


The earnings of a doctor through private practice depends on his/her popularity. The doctors who are working in government hospitalrs are well paid. The pay varies for those working with private hospitals. It may vary from Rs 10,000 to Rs 15,000.

Dentists beginning their careers in government hospitals can expect their salaries to be around Rs 7,000, and those who hold post graduate degrees can begin at salaries of Rs. 8,000. A dentist setting up a private practice can earn, on an average, Rs 6,000 a month However with ranks and experience, the renumeration increases. Salaries in the private sector are a lot higher.

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